Field work has been carried out in mid-Wales (Plynlimon area) to locate sites of
These sites have been identified by the presence of the ubiquitous stone mining hammers
and other tools (hammer/anvil stones), small eroded pits and opencuts on copper/lead
veins, as well as overgrown shallow spoil mounds with weathered fireset mine waste
Map shows mines (triangles), mineral lodes (dotted lines) and prospection areas
Field examination of these sites has been undertaken across the UK. However, more
detailed topographical surveys have been carried out within areas rich in early mining
Soil geochemical surveys have been undertaken to help detect early mining and smelting
sites using a portable XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) instrument.
This has yielded useful results on the Great Orme’s Head, Llandudno (N.Wales) where
areas of Bronze Age mining and ore washing at spring sites has been revealed through
the distribution of high copper anomalies revealed by spatial mapping and sampling
at 50-100 metre intervals.
Copper as ppm in soils courtesy of D. Jenkins/A.Owen.